The term Internet of Things refers to scenarios where network connectivity and computing capability extends to objects, sensors and everyday items, allowing these devices to generate, exchange and consume data with minimal human intervention. IoT is combination of Ubiquitous Connectivity, Adoption of IP-based Networks, Computing Economics, Miniaturization, Data Analytics and Cloud Computing.
Ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp / Pervasive computing / Ambient Intelligence / Haptic Computing) is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere. In contrast to desktop computing, ubiquitous computing can occur using any device, in any location, and in any format. It is a network of small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly common-place ends.
There were three basic forms for ubiquitous system devices
- Tabs: wearable centimetre sized devices
- Pads: hand-held decimetre-sized devices
- Boards: metre sized interactive display devices
Now we talk about following forms of ubiquitous devices
- Dust: devices can be without visual output displays, e.g. micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
- Skin: fabrics based upon light emitting and conductive polymers such as clothes and curtains
- Clay: can be formed into arbitrary three dimensional shapes as artefacts resembling many different kinds of physical object
Computational economics uses computer-based economic modeling for the solution of analytically and statistically formulated economic problems. Computational solution tools include for example software for carrying out various matrix operations (e.g. matrix inversion) and for solving systems of linear and nonlinear equations.
Miniaturization is the trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices. The bottom line of most tradeoffs in miniaturization is whether or not the market will support the cost of achieving a given size/performance level. Cutting-edge miniaturization typically becomes more expensive as sizes are reduced. A part of the increased cost results from facilities and placement/bonding machines that can attain higher precision.
Data Analytics – Big Data is about extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions.
Cloud Computing is a practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer. It is a model for enabling on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Cloud computing allows companies to avoid up-front infrastructure costs (e.g., purchasing servers) and it enables organizations to focus on their core businesses instead of spending time and money on computer infrastructure. Cloud providers typically use a “pay as you go” model.
-Prof Yatin Jog